Credits

Native Words, Native Warriors was produced by the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI), Smithsonian Institution. The website was made possible, in part, thanks to the generous support of Elizabeth Hunter Solomon. Copyright, Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of the American Indian, 2007.

Project Developer and Writer

Edwin Schupman (Muscogee), NMAI

Smithsonian Institution Advisory/Review Team

Robert Alexander (Kiowa), NMAI
Clare Cuddy, NMAI
Katherine Krile, SITES
Keevin Lewis (Navajo), NMAI
Genevieve Simermeyer (Osage), NMAI
Kathy Suter, NMAI
Cheryl Wilson, NMAI

Design

Cortina Productions

Cathryn Buchanan – Project Manager/Producer
Gabe Kean – Designer
Josh Santangelo – Programmer
Joe Cortina – Creative Director
Jim Cortina – Executive Producer
Amy Maddox – Senior Producer
Byron Ricks – Editor
Jim McNamee – Audio Editor
Aaron Hedquist – Image Production Artist
Rachel Torgoff – Photo Researcher

Spoken Word Audio

Narration

Edwin Schupman (Muscogee), NMAI

Narration Recording Engineer

Steve McGraw, NMAI

Comanche Language recording

Courtesy, Comanche Nation (provided by Mrs. Tomah Yeahquo, Director of the Comanche Nation Language Immersion Department with direct approval of Mr. Wallace Coffey, Comanche Nation Tribal Chairman)

Sandra Karty (Comanche), Comanche Elder Translator
Videll Yackeschi, Native American Translator, Comanche Language Program

Additional Comanche language

Fred Nahwooksy (Comanche), NMAI

Navajo Code Talker alphabet recording

Courtesy, Circle of Light Navajo Educational Project

Keith Little (Navajo Code Talker)

Additional Navajo language

Berenice Levchuk (Navajo)
Leonda Levchuk (Navajo)

Code Talking Re-creation

Re-creation of a WWII Comanche Code Talker battlefield transmission by Richard Codypony (Comanche), based on information provided by Charles Chibitty, Comanche Code Talker, courtesy of Oklahoma Historical Society, Oklahoma Museum of History

Code Talker Interviews

Courtesy, National Museum of the American Indian, 2004

John Brown, Jr. (Navajo)
Charles Chibitty (Comanche)
Chester Nez (Navajo)
Merril L. Sandoval (Navajo)
Frank Sanache (Meskwaki)
Franklin Shupla (Hopi)
Sam Tso (Navajo)
Travis Yaiva (Hopi)

Spellings of code words from the Navajo language and their translations for this website were derived from the Navajo Code Talkers Dictionary, revised version, June, 1945. Spellings of code words from the Comanche language and their translations for this website were derived from The Comanche Code Talkers of World War II by William C. Meadows, University of Texas Press, 2002.

Music

Comanche Flag Song

Courtesy, Comanche Nation (provided by Mrs. Tomah Yeahquo, Director of the Comanche Nation Language Immersion Department with direct approval of Mr. Wallace Coffey, Comanche Nation Tribal Chairman)

Singers: Kevin Sovo, June Sovo, Gene Sovo, Lenniel Sovo, Stacy Sovo, Chris Otipoby

Comanche Code Talker Song

Courtesy, Comanche Nation (provided by Mrs. Tomah Yeahquo, Director of the Comanche Nation Language Immersion Department with direct approval of Mr. Wallace Coffey, Comanche Nation Tribal Chairman)

Singers: Anthony Monoessy, Cheevers Delgado

Tai-pe-go Starting Song

Kiowa Gourd Dance, Volume 1, IH 2503. Courtesy of Indian House, Taos, NM

Singers: Daniel Cozad, Joe Cozad, Larry Cozad, Leonard Cozad Sr., Billy Hunting Horse, Adam Kaulaity, Vincent Spotted Bird, Yale Spotted Bird, Velma Cozad, Barbara Ahhaitty Monoessy, Dobbin Monoessy, Naomi Svitak

Comanche Hymn

Beautiful Beyond: Christian Songs in Native Languages. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, SFWCD 40480

Singers: Members of Petarsey United Methodist Church, Lawton, Oklahoma

Sweet Hour of Prayer (Navajo)

Beautiful Beyond: Christian Songs in Native Languages. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, SFWCD 40480

Singers: TeecNosPos Gospel Melody – Alfred L. Jim, Cynthia Anderson, and John Wilson

The Beauty Way by Jay Begaye

Navajo Code Talkers. Courtesy of Canyon Records, 3131 West Clarendon Avenue, Phoenix, Arizona 85017. All rights reserved.

Singers: Jay Begaye, Norman Shorty, Leander Shay, Leandrew Shay

Diné Flag Song

The Colorful World by Jay Begaye. Courtesy of Canyon Records, 3131 West Clarendon Avenue, Phoenix, Arizona 85017. All rights reserved.

Singer: Jay Begaye

Veterans’ Honor Song, with Robert Tree Cody, Native American Flute

For All Eternity by Tódí Neesh Zhee Singers. Courtesy of Canyon Records, 3131 West Clarendon Avenue, Phoenix, Arizona 85017. All rights reserved.

Singers: Albert “Bucky” Nelson III, Alger Greyeyes, Elmer Greyeyes, Albert Nelson Jr., Paul F. Boone, Leander Seaton, Jerome Austin, Gary Nelson, Jerome Cly

Special Thanks

Lanny Asepermy (Comanche)
Andy Boyd
Lauren Chyle
Wallace Coffey (Comanche)
Pamela DeRensis (Lumbee), NMAI
Robert Doyle, Canyon Records
Zonnie Gorman (Navajo)
Aaron Hibbard
George Horse Capture (A'aninin)
Tony Isaacs, Indian House Records
Kenji Kawano
Gina Laczko
William C. Meadows, Ph.D.
Tracy McGowan, Smithsonian Office of Contracts
Martina Minthorn (Comanche)
Machel Monenerkit (Comanche), NMAI
Fred Nahwooksy (Comanche)
Dmitri Nizhoni (Navajo), formerly NMAI
Gwen Shunatona (Pawnee, Otoe, Pottawatomi)
Amy Van Allen, NMAI
W. Richard West (Northern Cheyenne), NMAI
Pamela Woodis (Jicarilla Apache), NMAI
Tomah Yeahquo (Comanche)
Dennis Zotigh (Kiowa), NMAI

Photo Services, National Museum of the American Indian
Cumberland County Historical Society, Carlisle, Pennsylvania
The Heard Museum
The Oklahoma Historical Society
The Oklahoma State Senate Historical Preservation Fund, Inc.
State Historical Society of Iowa
The United States Marine Corps

Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge